A brief introduction on the creation of EMADDC
The research on the use of Mode-S data for trajectory prediction purposes was initiated by Air Traffic Control The Netherlands (LVNL). In 2006 LVNL approached KNMI in order to explore possible opportunities and cooperation. An analysis report with the title 'LVNL Meteo Server' was produced by J.J. Vegter of LVNL in April 2007.
In December 2008 the Knowledge Development Centre Mainport Schiphol (KDC) initiated the project TP Meteo Server. The purpose of this project is to develop and implement a system to provide nowcasts and forecasts of wind, temperature and air-density data in a 3D grid covering an area with a radius of about 200NM around Schiphol, from sea level up to FL 450. The prime user of this service will be the Trajectory Prediction function in the LVNL ATC system. The KNMI component was funded by KDC and Mode-S EHS data was supplied to KNMI by LVNL. The final KDC report was delivered by LVNL on January 15, 2010. From this initial research it was concluded that:
- Good quality wind can be derived from Mode-S EHS when
- The magnetic heading is corrected to the true north
- The 'true' heading is corrected with a aircraft dependent heading correction
- When corrected, the Mode-S EHS derived wind observations show to have a positive impact when assimilated in a Rapid Update Cycle of the Numerical Weather Prediction model HIRLAM
Experts involved in this project were:
- LVNL: Paul de Kraker, Ferdinand Dijkstra
- Boeing: Louis Bailey
- KNMI: Siebren de Haan, Ad Stoffelen, Jan Sondij
Research on the use of Mode-S EHS data continued as KDC started a project for the development and implementation of TP Next Generation. KNMI was partially funded by KDC to deliver the KNMI component, in casu the meteorological information. The research started in March 2010 and ended in September 2013. Among others this resulted in:
- an update of the wind requirements of LVNL;
- additional research to optimise the algorithms to derive upper wind and temperature from Mode-S EHS data, see publications;
- research to identify the optimal manner to assimilate Mode-S EHS derived observations in the Numerical Weather Prediction model HIRLAM;
- an operational hourly updated cycle of HIRLAM that assimilates the Mode-S EHS derived observations;
- a quality assessment of ADS-C wind and temperature observations; and
- the brochure Aircraft as a meteorological sensor.
Experts involved in this project were:
- LVNL: Douwe de Vries, Jan Westland, Maarten Tielrooij
- Boeing: Louis Bailey
- KLM: Joost Konnen
- KNMI: Siebren de Haan, Jan Sondij, Mark Savenije, Gert-Jan Marseille, Cisco de Bruijn, Sander Tijm
In November 2012 a Non Disclosure Agreement was signed between Maastricht Upper Area Centre (MUAC) of EUROCONTROL and KNMI. Operational Mode-S EHS data of Germany, Belgium and The Netherlands is provided to KNMI by MUAC every 15 minutes. KNMI uses this data to derive wind and temperature observations for operational assimilation in numerical weather prediction models.
- the operational implementation of Mode-S EHS derived observations in HIRLAM;
- the expansion of the Mode-S EHS coverage in Europe thtough local ADS-B/Mode-S receivers;
- the initial assimilation in HARMONIE as part of SESAR Sub Work Package 11.2;
- research on eddy dissipation rate retrieval via Mode-S EHS as part of the EU UFO project.
In 2015 KNMI applied for European funding to deploy an operational centre for the ECAC area that processes Aircraft Derived Data, such as Mode-S EHS and MRAR into quality controlled upper aír observations on wind direction, wind speed and air temperature.
The proposal was accepted and the project started in 2016 under Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) Call 2015 Cluster 2, project 2015_137_AF5 European Meteorological Aircraft Derived Data Center (EMADDC). The deployment of SESAR is coordinated by the SESAR Deployment Manager.
The project is coordinated by KNMI and the UK MET Office is an implementing partner. The initial deadline of December 2020 is extended due to COVID-19 impact until December 2023.
The start of a new partnership between EMADDC and Air Support A/S. Air Support is rolling out a new terrestrial-based ADS-B network for aviation use. The local ADS-B/Mode-S EHS receivers provide ADS-B and Mode-S EHS data to EMADDC.
To optimise the use of the data for EMADDC the settings of the receivers have been changed by Air Support in 2020/2021 and a technical solution to deliver the data via the cloud has been accomplished. The coming years the network will steadily increase and the intent is that meteorological institutes can act as hosts for the Air Support receivers.
The sharp drop of AMDAR observations in Europe due to COVID-19 resulted in a request from EUMETNET PFAC and STAC to KNMI to provide additional upper air observations via EMADDC to EUMETNET Members. In order to facilitate this request at short notice the EMADDC team came up with the solution to process all available operational and test data streams on the EMADDC TEST server. See EMADDC update on COVID-19.
After signing a Data Sharing Agreement between KNMI EMADDC and ECMWF the EMADDC data is assimilated operationally by ECMWF.
As of 2021 EMADDC is a mandatory module of the EUMETNET Aircraft Based Observation (E-ABO) Program.
The operational implementation of high-resolution meteorological information in the arrival manager of LVNL, called ASAP, based on the iniitial research and development of the TP Meteo Server.
The ambition of EMADDC is to provide quality controlled upper air observations of wind and temperature as operational center. The initial scope is Europe at large and will be extended globally to those areas where Mode-S EHS data exists. Other data sources such as Mode-S MRAR and ADS-C will be included.
The long term outlook is that aircraft will be transmitting meteorological parameters such as wind and temperature directly. The role of EMADDC could then be focused towards the continuous quality monitoring of the provided data.
The overarching objective of EMADDC will remain to be to improve and further the meteorological service provision to aeronautical stakeholders and beyond.